Aim. To evaluate the effect of oseltamivir and GABA on dopamine (DA) pathways and some oxidative stress biomarkers in brain of dyskinetic animals. \nMethods. Wistar rats were treated as follows: group 1, NaCl 0.9 % (control); group 2, GABA (500 mg per rat); group 3, GABA + oseltamivir (50 mg/kg/rat, single dose); group 4, GABA + oseltamivir in 5 repeated doses). The levels of glucose was measured in blood while in brain levels of DA, GABA, lipid peroxidation, glutathione, calcium, H2O2, and total ATPase.\nResults. None of treatments affected glucose levels. In cortex and cerebellum/medulla oblongata, DA increased in animals that received repeated doses of GABA + oseltamivir. GSH increased in cortex of rats treated with GABA + oseltamivir as single and multi-doses. For the animals that received GABA alone or just oseltamivir, there was a decrease in lipid peroxidation in all the regions. In cortex, and cerebellum/ medulla oblongata, the level of calcium increased in animals that were administered oseltamivir. \nConclusion. Based on the results, the joint administration of GABA and oseltamivir leads to changes in dopamine levels and induces antioxidant effect in the brain. Now, the question is “to use or not to use oseltamivir?”
The modern city spatial configuration is established through a network of streets that represents a structural grid of interconnecting spaces. This grid determines movement patterns that affect land use patterns; and in return affects the value of land in different areas, therefore, determining future developments and influencing the urban economy. Bridges and tunnels are recognized as discrete spatial network elements that represent traffic generated solutions for better linkage of urban areas, hence, providing better accessibility. The study aims to understand the morphological effect of bridges and tunnels, through explorations in the perspective of land values using qualitative research methods that consist of data collecting, analyzing and comparing, applied by the Depthmap program and SPSS as tools. The study proposed that bridges and tunnels have a remarkable influence over accessibility and hence over the property market. It also proved that the space syntax methodology provides a great valuable addition to the process of evaluating existing and suggested network developments. The study suggested a syntactic planning criterion that regards more efficient allocation of bridges and tunnels to ensure sustainable economic growth and development.
Introduction: The pigeon tick Argas reflexus typically feeds on pigeons. Under special circumstances, the ticks may attack humans. The Argas reflexus belongs to the Argasidae family, also found in Poland. This is a very dangerous tick which lives in the nests of pigeons, jackdaws as well as domestic fowl. People living in the vicinity of the bird’s nesting sites are frequently bitten by A. reflexus. The bites can provoke serious allergic and non-allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock. \nPatients and methods: The abstract presents the case report of a person who developed a serious allergic reaction after an A. reflexus bite. A 54-year-old male, previously healthy, reports two systemic reactions, including a rash on his corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, loss of consciousness and a tremor affecting the whole body which forced his family to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the patient had lived in a top-floor apartment for over 28-years and that there had been a dovecote in the loft above, which was cleared 3 years ago. Since 2010 after the clearance of the loft, ticks started to appear in the apartment, which periodically bit all household members during summer nights. \nResults: A skin prick was carried out test using pigeon tick excretion. The skin test with native allergen was categorically positive (histamine 14 mm/6 mm, prick to prick 40 mm/11 mm).\nConclusions: The prick-to-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms. The best way to prevent allergic reactions to A. reflexus is to remove parasites.
To analyze the restrictive genetic mainstreams of adaptation-based fed-batch biocircuit (ABFBB) (with optimized H2O2-based targeting) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, the transcriptomic profiling of semi-continuous lignocellulose-based biofermentation was carried out. Independent of cultivation terms (whether continuous/semi-continuous ABFBB or non-continuous batch), surprisingly, the significant models of 17 lignocellulolytic transcriptome sets were considerably analogous. In a view of the cordial relations between homeostatic dispersion (of metabolic target signals) and downstream connectivity, the bedrock value of expressional similarity (of white-rot basidiomycetes) could be of very high caliber. Furthermore, it may be understood as the womb of basidiomycetes’ evolutionary root.
The significant development of information technologies across a number of educational establishments is inducing a profound effect on how teachers teach and learners learn, as well as how the two interact together. The learning process is ongoing, and is aimed at ensuring quality of learning and interaction is improved. Top universities recently have made a number of announcements centred on changing new educational provision approaches, referred to as MOOCS (Massive Open Online Courses). Not only have these achieved the attention of learners and academics in the higher educational domain, but also of teaching staff and students in the K-12 setting, both in the classroom environment and in terms of home schooling. With MOOCs, there has been a notable shift away from more conventional teaching methods, where the teacher is responsible for communicating knowledge, to a situation where the learner interacts with other peers and students, and is afforded flexible access to resources and information prior to entering a classroom. This paper aims to evaluate the best MOOCs providers for Arabic counties using UTAUT Model. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) model has been applied in mind of examining the various factors known to effect the acceptance and use of the MOOCs in Arabic Countries.
Introduction: Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue-specific inhibitors play an important role in allergic disease.\nMethodology: The study was performed in 80 individuals: 30 with food allergy, 30 with airborne allergy and 20 healthy. We examined the serum concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-1. Determination of these parameters was performed by ELISA. \nResults: The concentrations of sMMP-2 and-9 in the groups of patients with food, airborne allergy and control groups were, respectively, 153,8±97,1 and 198,8±51,4 ng/ml; 136,3±41,2 and 184,9±38,8 ng/ml, 119,5±12,5 and 121,6±25,5 ng/ml. sMMP-2 demonstrated statistically significant differences between the group with food allergy and the control group (p=0.0309), no significant differences between groups of airborne allergy and the control group, as well as between the group of airborne and food allergy (for p=0.4225 and p=0.1473). Differences of sMMP-9 levels were significantly higher in the group of airborne and food allergies than in the control group (both p=0.0000). There was no significant difference between the group of patients with airborne and food allergy (p=0.3952). The concentrations of sTIMP-1 in groups of patients with food allergy and airborne were significantly higher than those in the control group (respectively p=0.0000 and p=0.0003) and were in the group with food allergies 164.3±59.2 ng/ml; airborne allergy 145.4±50.1 ng/ml, whereas in the control group 92.4±6.7 ng/ml. There was no statistically significant difference sTIMP-1 concentrations between the group of patients with airborne and food allergy (p=0.2458).\nConclusion: The results of this study suggest an important role of MMPs and TIMPs in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation.
Our study was designed to determine the level of oxidative stress parameters in rats consisting of treadmill exercise performed at different times. The rats in the treadmill exercise groups were subjected to run on a treadmill for 15 and 30 min once a day, seven times a week, continued for 28 days. Compliance with the normal distribution of variables was evaluated by KolmogorovSmirnov test. Comparisons between groups were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA post hoc LSD test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant differences. As a result SOD 1.09 ± 0.23, 3.95 ± 2.26 GSH and MDA was determined to be 1.46 ± 0.41. Short Duration Exercise group; 1.22 ± 0.14 SOD, GSH 3.12 ± 0.17 and 1.64 ± 0.58 and MDA Moderate Exercise group SOD 1.12 ± 0.19, 2.49 ± 0.42 GSH, MDA 1.16 ± 0.49 level was found in. As a result, it is more effective than moderate exercise on antioxidant activity, but the short-term exercise training performed in animals oxidant / antioxidant balance between energy systems said to be linked to the system.